consensus
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leaderless BFT dual ledger architecture
a decentralized ledger system that features a leaderless, fully-local and scalable consensus algorithm based on virtual voting coupled with proof of work and proof of stake anti-sybil [6] mechanisms that reaches eventual consensus with probability one. The concept of virtual voting was known long before in the literature, starting with the pioneering paper ”ByzantineResistant Total Ordering Algorithms” [5] by Moser and Melliar-Smith where they formulated four algorithms to establish a total ordering from network events. The peculiar concept of virtual voting that later reappeared in other papers such as Hashgraph [8], PARSEC [9] or Blockmania [51], was the ability to execute a virtual agreement protocol, as authors Moser and Melliar-Smith cleverly observed long before and exploited the fact that votes weren’t explicitly contained in the messages, but were deducted from the causal relationships between them.

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