Proof of Activity

Combine Proof of Work component with a Proof of Stake.


  • Mining first begins in the traditional manner, with miners vying to be the first to solve a puzzle and claim their reward.

  • The difference is that the blocks being mined do not contain transactions.

  • They are simply templates with header information and the mining reward address.

  • Once this nearly blank block is mined, the system switches to a proof of stake protocol.

  • The header information is used to select a random group of validators to sign the block.

  • These are coin holders (stakeholders) and the larger the stake a validator holds, the greater the chance they will be selected to sign the new block.

  • Once all the chosen validators sign the block it becomes an actual part of the blockchain.

  • If the block remains unsigned by some of the chosen validators after a given time, it is discarded as incomplete and the next winning block is used.

  • Validators are once again chosen and this continues until a winning block is signed by all the chosen validators.

  • The network fees are split between the winning miner and the validators who signed the block.

Used in


  • Criticisms are the same as for both proof of work and proof of stake.

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